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 on: October 27, 2021, 07:39:15 PM 
Started by hatil - Last post by hatil
When organizing autonomous water supply in a private house, wells are most often used. But the quality of the drinking fluid in such sources often does not meet the standard requirements, so homeowners have resorted to different cleaning methods. Among them - deferrization of water.

Natural forms of iron
Aquifers often contain various forms of iron. They affect the chemical composition of the drinking fluid and determine its properties.

In surface waters
Iron can be found here in organic complexes (humates). They form colloidal suspensions.

In well waters
With private water intake from wells installed within the cottage or summer cottage, several types of iron can be found in the drinking liquid. Among them:

Iron in water
Iron types in water.
2-valent. It is a free 2-valent substance that is completely soluble in water, therefore it is not amenable to visual determination. Impurities can be detected only by the characteristic smell and taste of water. In the process of settling, iron interacts with oxygen and forms 3-valent iron oxide.
3-valent. Formed as a result of oxidation of the previous form. The increased concentration of such a compound makes the liquid reddish and provokes the accumulation of plaque on household appliances or dishes.
Colloidal. This form is present in water in the form of fine suspended particles, the size of which does not exceed 0.1 microns. The substance does not settle and cannot be removed with the usual charcoal filters.
Bacterial. This type of iron appears due to the presence of bacterial colonies in the liquid that convert the 2-valent form to the 3-valent form. Microorganisms generate a dense film of rainbow light on the surface of the water layer and make the water viscous and undrinkable.
The harm of iron in water from a well
An increased concentration of iron provokes a number of negative consequences:

Iron in pipes
Iron in water damages pipelines.
Reduces the taste and beneficial properties of water. She gets a glandular taste and an unpleasant odor. Regular drinking of water with an increased concentration of iron disrupts the functionality of the liver and kidneys. Traces of pigmentation appear on the skin, the tooth enamel turns yellow, and the hair becomes brittle. In addition, iron negatively affects the cardiovascular system, provoking general weakness and rapid fatigue.
Makes washing more difficult and deteriorates. White laundry turns yellowish during processing.
It exerts a load on pipelines through which water is transported, water heaters and household appliances that consume liquid from a well. Over time, sludge appears on the surfaces of the pipes, impairing the movement of the substance.
It provokes the appearance of plaque on the surface of dishwashers and washing machines, irons and coffee makers.
Forms a yellow coating on plumbing fixtures. This degrades the appearance of equipment, bathtubs, sinks and sinks.
How to determine excess iron in water
It is possible to establish an excess concentration of iron in the composition of the drinking liquid by the following signs:

Metallic taste.
Characteristic shade (from brown to red, depending on the concentration of iron).
Brown precipitate that appears without boiling the liquid.
Turbidity and lack of transparency in the composition.
Stains on linen and clothes after washing.
Iron in water
The increased iron content in the water gives it a brownish color.
The listed troubles appear with a critical overabundance of iron. Minor deviations from the permissible norm are almost invisible. But frequent and constant drinking of such water can negatively affect the state of health. When irrigating indoor flowers or garden crops, their oppression and death are not excluded. In the event of a leakage of the faucet, a rust deposit with many harmful microorganisms will be detected.

The limit of iron content in water for home use reaches 0.5-0.20 mg / l. In public institutions, cafes, restaurants, hospitals and educational institutions, sanitary standards provide for a permissible indicator of 0.3 mg / l.

Classification of water deferrization methods
Water purification in the well is carried out by different methods and systems. They differ in how they work and are suitable for removing different forms of iron. Depending on the substance used, all methods are:

You can get detailed information about each cleaning method from the specialists of the KVANTA + company, Tyumen.

Reagent-free deferrization of water
When using this method, the key consumable element is electrical energy, which powers the treatment plant. At the same time, for complex water purification with the removal of insoluble impurities, it is necessary to use special catalysts - substances that stimulate oxidation and contribute to more efficient processing of the working environment.

Modern units are characterized by environmental safety and the ability to preserve the useful composition of water. In addition, they do not require complex maintenance and are quite simple to operate.

The method is characterized by minimal financial costs for electricity and sewage treatment plants, because involves settling the liquid in a large-sized container. To increase the effectiveness of the procedure, it is necessary to expand the area of ​​contact of the water mass with air. This is done by using large tanks.

The system will be more effective if you organize not a direct supply of liquid, but its spray in the form of a mist.

Compressor aeration
The principle of operation of a primitive aeration plant with compressor equipment is quite simple. A pipe with holes is lowered into the tank with the medium to be processed, through which air is supplied. Interacting with the flow, the liquid is saturated with oxygen, and the soluble iron species acquire a 3-valent form, precipitating. The water treated by this method is poured into another container, and then pumped over to additional purification means.

Aeration scheme
The principle of operation of the compressor aeration plant.
The typical scheme of the aeration station provides for the following components:

The compressor is responsible for pumping air into the tank.
Aeration column for saturating the aqueous medium with oxygen.
Column with a mechanical filter, where additional oxidation and separation of sparingly soluble impurities are performed.
Automation, which is responsible for pumping sludge from the column into the sewer pit.
The technology of water treatment according to this principle implies the decomposition of iron impurities as a result of the effect of electricity on oxidizing substances: hydrogen, oxygen, hydroxide of the OH ion, ozone, chlorine. The activated components interact with the 2-valent iron, converting it into the 3-valent form.

Electrolysis is widely used in industrial conditions and is practically not found in household use. This is due to the increased consumption of electrical energy (0.2 kW cubic meters) and the need to include additional chlorine-containing particles in the aquatic environment.

Electrolysis of water
Diagram of the use of electrolysis for water purification.
Ejector aeration
The technique allows the water layer to be purified at an iron concentration of up to 2 mg / l. An iron removal column and an air intake mechanism are used as the main components of the system.

The station operates according to the following principle: working medium and pressurized air are supplied to a mixer with an ejector located outside, or to an automatic unit on the column. The working ejector dissipates the flow, connecting it with the air. As a result of this effect, finely dispersed water suspensions are saturated with oxygen.

The next cycle involves pumping water with insoluble impurities to the iron removal column.

Such systems make it possible to effectively remove iron impurities in water using ozone, which oxidizes the chemical element more efficiently than the 2-valent form.

The existing types of equipment differ in their internals. At the same time, their main components are an ozonizer, which generates ozone, and mixing tanks, where it starts a chemical reaction.

The treated medium is additionally cleaned in a charcoal filter, and the sludge is sent to waste water.

Ozonation of water
The ozonation process is the purification of water using oxidants.
The advantage of the unit is high-quality disinfection and fight against bacteria. In addition, it brightens the liquid and improves its taste.

From the negative sides, the high cost and explosiveness of the equipment are distinguished. To avoid risks, it is important to adhere to strict rules and regulations during operation. Do-it-yourself repair and maintenance of the system is impossible. This will require the involvement of experts.

Reagent deferrization
The method is based on the use of special reagents. Automation is responsible for the correct conduct of all stages.

Catalytic method
The technology involves the use of a method of accelerated conversion of iron using catalytic reagents. As a result of such processing, the chemical element acquires an insoluble form. By default, the reaction is carried out in the factory deferrization column, into which a special filling is immersed. When using the technique, catalytic oxidizers are used (glauconite, zeolite, dolomite).

Ion exchange resins
Systems operating on the basis of ion exchange resins use the following principle: cation exchangers (with a negative charge) are balanced in neutral water on the surface of resin granules in contact with positive charges.

Ion exchange method
Scheme of ion-exchange water purification.
In most cases, ion exchange resins are used to soften liquids, i.e. for its purification from calcium and magnesium ions.

Both softening agents and complex compositions based on universal resins are available on the market, which provide both softening and deferrization of the liquid.

Chemical oxidants
Even the average consumer is familiar with chemicals that have oxidizing properties. They are widespread in everyday life (potassium permanganate, bleaches, etc.). Such substances are enriched with active oxygen, which provokes the formation of an insoluble precipitate from 2-valent iron.

Treatment of the aquatic environment with chemical reagents is not accompanied by special efforts. However, the technology has not received much distribution in everyday life due to such negative aspects:

The need to comply with the exact dosage. Hypochlorite and manganese are unsafe for the body if the permissible norm is exceeded. But choosing the optimal dosage at home is problematic.
Financial costs associated with the rapid consumption of oxidants. Unlike ion exchange resins, which can be used for 5 years, manganese and hypochlorite are quickly consumed.
Complexity of process automation. For the operation fluxtek water purifier of the station, it is necessary to provide a special dosing pump with automation. Such equipment is found only in industrial installations. The need to implement a manual or automated system for draining wastewater into the sewer. This is accompanied by additional investments and does not justify the everyday use of the technology.
A special reagent for purifying water from iron.
Other methods of deferrization of water
At home, iron can be removed from drinking water by boiling, freezing or settling. As an inexpensive alternative to industrial methods, you can consider assembling a homemade filter with a filler.

When boiled, 2-valent iron reacts with dissolved oxygen to form an insoluble form.

In the case of freezing, the principle of temperature difference is used, at which a clean and polluted water environment becomes a solid state.

Features of the use of installations for deferrization of water
The design of a treatment plant for a well is carried out in the course of a complex chemical analysis of water. The consumer should receive information on the concentration of impurities of hydrogen sulfide, manganese, potassium and iron ions.

On the basis of the results of the study, specialists carry out the assembly of the water treatment system. With an increased content of a chemical element, installations with aeration are used. If the liquid is enriched with hardness salts, complex backfills with resins are required. With a large amount of contamination, a multi-level installation will be required.

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